Wednesday, January 30, 2019

The bullet shot that shook America

Five days after winning the American civil war against the Confederates, US President Abraham Lincoln was shot dead by John Wilkes Booth, an actor and Confederate supporter while watching a play in Washington

Illustrations: John Wilkes Booth shooting Abraham Lincoln; the vigil near Abraham Lincoln's bed as his life ebbs away 

By Shevlin Sebastian

On April 14, 1865, when President Abraham Lincoln entered the Ford’s Theatre at Washington late to watch the play ‘Our American Cousin’, it was stopped while the orchestra played ‘Hail to the chief’. Around 1700 members of the audience stood up and applauded.  Soon Lincoln and his wife Mary settled in their box even as the play resumed. The others in the box included a young army officer named Henry Rathbone and his fiancĂ©, Clara Harris.

At one point when lead actor Harry Hawk said a funny line, the audience burst out laughing, including Lincoln.

At 10.15 p.m., a nationally known actor John Wilkes Booth stepped up behind Lincoln. Using a .44 calibre pistol, he shot at Lincoln. Later reports suggested that the bullet entered Lincoln's skull behind his left ear, passed through his brain, and fractured both orbital plates.

Lincoln slumped over and then fell backwards.

Rathbone immediately rushed at Booth but the latter stabbed him on the shoulder.  Then Booth jumped onto the stage, from a height of 12 feet, and shouted the Latin phrase, “Sic Semper tyrannis!” (“Thus ever to tyrants!”).

The audience thought it was part of the play till Mary screamed. As for Booth, although he broke his leg, he managed to escape.  

Meanwhile, Charles Leale, a young doctor, who was in the audience, rushed to the box. He saw that Lincoln was struggling to breathe. Then several people carried Lincoln to a boarding house on the opposite side. Sometime later, the Surgeon General Joseph K Barnes arrived and he, along with a few other doctors, including Lincoln’s personal physician Robert K Stone inspected Lincoln and concluded that he could not be saved.

There was a vigil. The Navy Secretary Gideon Welles and War Secretary Edwin M Stanton arrived. And many other officials and people’s representatives came to pay their respects.
Just before 7 a.m. Mary sat at Lincoln’s side and kissed him and murmured sweet but despairing endearments. Finally, Lincoln was pronounced dead at 7:22 a.m. on April 15, 1865, at the age of 56.

The body was taken to the White House where an autopsy was done. Mary asked the surgeons for a lock of Lincoln’s hair which was duly given. As they were removing Lincoln’s brain, the bullet fell into a basin. Suddenly, the team stopped and stared at it in silence. It would be a bullet that would traumatise a nation for generations to come.

The killing took place just five days after the surrender of Confederate General Robert E. Lee and his army at Appomattox Court House, Virginia. It ended the four-year-old American Civil War.

All over the country flags flew at half mast and all the shops were closed. People reeled from the shock of the assassination.

On April 18, Lincoln’s body was placed in the Capitol rotunda. Thereafter, after three days, it was taken on a train to a cemetery in Springfield, Illinois, 2700 km away. Incidentally, Springfield was where Lincoln lived before he became president.

Many thousands of Americans lined the route. Along the way, the train would stop and bands would play and people sang hymns. Lincoln was buried alongside his son  Willie, who died of typhoid fever in 1862.
World leaders mourned his death. Lord Russell, the British Foreign Secretary said it was a calamity, while China’s Chief Secretary Prince Kung said, “I am shocked and startled.” The Ecuadorian President Gabriel Garcia Moreno was more vocal: "Never would I have thought that the noble country of Washington would be humiliated by such a black and horrible crime; nor should I ever have thought that Mr Lincoln would come to such a horrible end, after having served his country which such wisdom and glory under so critical circumstances.”
Meanwhile, the search for Booth began in right earnest. More than ten thousand troops were involved. Huge rewards were offered: $50,000 (this was equivalent to $800,000 in today’s money). Booth had escaped on a horse. After being treated by a doctor Samuel A Mudd for his broken foot, he took refuge in tobacco farmer Richard H. Garrett’s house in Virginia by saying he was a wounded Confederate soldier.

But he was discovered on April 26. Soldiers surrounded the barn. But Booth refused to come out. He shouted, "I will not be taken alive!"

The barn was set on fire. Booth rushed out with a rifle and a pistol. But Sergeant Boston Corbett shot Booth in the back of his head, in a manner similar to the way Booth killed Lincoln.

He was taken to the steps of the barn. Booth, who was only 26 years old, told one of the soldiers, "Tell my mother I died for my country." He passed away two hours later.  

The Background

The American Civil War was fought from 1861 to 1865. It was about the enslavement of black people. The secessionists of the South advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery. The loyalists of the North proclaimed their support for the Constitution.

War broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina.

Among the 34 U.S. states, seven states said they were seceding, and formed the Confederate States of America. However, this was not diplomatically recognised by the US government  or any foreign country.

The Union and Confederacy quickly raised volunteer and conscription armies that fought mostly in the South. The end result: 750,000 people dead, more than the number of U.S. military deaths in all other wars combined.

The war ended when General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at the Battle of Appomattox Court House. Confederate generals in the southern states followed suit. Much of the South's infrastructure was destroyed, especially the transportation systems. The Confederacy collapsed, slavery was abolished, and four million black slaves were freed.

During the Reconstruction Era that followed the war, national unity was slowly restored, and the government expanded its power. Civil rights were guaranteed to freed black slaves through amendments to the Constitution and federal legislation. 

(The Martyrs' Supplement, The New Indian Express, South India)

Monday, January 28, 2019

Shalom, a night to remember!

For probably the first time, in Kochi, Christians felicitated Jews at an event called ‘A Night To Honour Israel’

Photos: the girl's choir; the Jews of Kochi 

By Shevlin Sebastian

The photo which social worker Abe Thomas Oommen of Kochi saw in the newspaper was heart-warming. It was of Dana Kursh, the Bangalore-based Israeli Consulate General, in charge of South India, standing on a truck along with two fellow officers, all holding cartons of drinking water bottles.

They were arranging to send relief supplies to Kerala during the floods a few months ago. “It touched my heart,” says Abe. “This must have been the first initiative by a foreign embassy to support Kerala. I felt the need to do something.”

And that wish came to fruition on January 20, when Abe and a few friends arranged ‘A Night To Honour Israel’, which was supported by 20 Protestant churches.

Abe says that Christians have not felicitated Jews in such a manner even though there have been close links for a long time. “Yes, this is the first time this has happened in Kerala,” says Josephhai Sam Abraham, a leader of the Jewish community.

Says Fr. Paul Karedan, spokesperson of the Ernakulam-Angamaly Archdiocese of the Syro-Malabar Church, “Though the Jewish community is very small in Kerala we have had cordial relations for a long time. But it is also a fact that we have not had many interactions.”

Even though, as Abe says, Jews are at the root of the Christian faith. “Jesus Christ was a Jew,” he says. “All the apostles were Jews. The prominent people in our faith, like Abraham, Joseph and Jacob have their roots in Judaism.”

Out of the 14 Jewish families living in and around Kochi, members from eight families attended. “The purpose was to remember and celebrate what the Jews have contributed to Kerala,” says Abe.

The chief guest was Ariel Seidman, the Deputy Consular General for the Israel Consulate in Bangalore. Among the 700 people present, there were judges, police officers, church leaders, businessmen, artists and writers.

During the programme, several Hebrew songs were sung by members of church choirs and also a dance to the tune of the evergreen Jewish folk song, ‘Hava Nagila’.

Abe’s wife, Deepa, a psychologist, who knows a bit of Hebrew provided the training over a period of one month. Incidentally, when a group of children sang, they wore white T-shirts with the line, ‘I Stand With Israel’ next to an image of the Star of David.

Then the Jews were presented with a hand-painted plaque with the word ‘Shalom’ written in Hebrew and English (‘Shalom’ means peace and this is how the Jews greet each other when they meet for the first time). The hand design was done by young artist Meghna Girish.

The Jews were very happy. “It was a unique experience,” says Josephhai Sam Abraham. “I was very much taken up by the perfect singing of the Hebrew songs by the children as well as the choir members.” 

(The New Indian Express, Kochi, Thiruvananthapuram and Kozhikode)

Tuesday, January 22, 2019

A Pakistani, with curiosity

The London-based Rehana Zaman talks about her film which is being shown at the Kochi Muziris Biennale, as well as racism, and her views of India and Pakistan 

Photos by Albin Mathew 

By Shevlin Sebastian

When the London-based artist Rehana Zaman was walking down a road at Fort Kochi, a man approached her and said, “Are you from North India?”

No,” she said. “I am Pakistani.”

Taken aback, it took a moment before the man broke out into a smile.

Welcome to India,” he said.

Whenever she introduced herself as a Pakistani, the people smiled and some shook her hand.

A featured artist in the fourth edition of the Kochi Muziris Biennale, Rehana, in collaboration with the film collective, Liverpool Black Women Filmmakers, is showing a 25-minute film called, ‘How does an Invisible Boy Disappear?’ It shows a young girl Liyana who goes in search of a missing black boy Jamal Clarke.

I wanted to show how black and brown women are portrayed negatively in the media,” says Rehana. “The film has archival footage of disturbances between the police and black and brown communities and the way the state dealt with racial unrest. Your background, gender and ethnicity can affect the way you are treated.”

Rehana says the official approach is disappointing. “In fact, there is a disproportionately larger number of black and brown people in the prisons,” she says. “I do feel like an outsider even though I am part of the system (she teaches fine art twice a week to undergraduate students at Goldsmiths, University of London). I have this double consciousness.”

Rehana is always aware that her name and Muslim background can have a negative impact. “However, I pass muster because I speak English well, and I am Westernised in my dress,” she says. “But my mother, relatives and friends are not treated in the same manner.”

There is an in-built racism. At her University, out of a staff of 40, there are only two Asian women. “They treat me well because it is a liberal arts institution,” says Rehana. “But when it comes to hiring practices or wages, it is not so good. The language used by the bureaucracy is very welcoming, but the structures can be very hostile. If you look at the statistics, and the people who are at the top of all institutions, you can see the bias.”

She says the London Mayor Sadiq Khan, who is of Pakistani origin, gets extreme criticisms and a powerful backlash. “He has to be seen to be doing more against terrorism,” says Rehana. “So, he encourages a greater police presence on the streets, an increase of ‘stop and search’ of young Asian and black men and asks Muslim community leaders to do more.”

Meanwhile, when asked to define India in one word, Rehana says, ‘Partition. I have relatives in North India. I also think of people, communities, colour and food.”

Rehana likes biriyani, dosas, appams and idiyapam. She is a regular visitor to the South Indian restaurants in London.

In London, she is friendly with Indians from Tamil Nadu and North India.“But mostly, I have friends among British and Kenyan origin Indians,” says the 36-year-old.

That may because Rehana is part of the diaspora. Her parents had migrated from Pakistan because of economic reasons in the late 1960s. So Rehana grew up in a town called Heckmondwike, around 300 kms from London.

She was always interested in art and after graduation from Goldsmiths, she has concentrated on her career as an artist. “I am interested in scripts, film history and politics,” she says. Her mode of expression is through films and she has participated in the Liverpool Biennale of Contemporary Art in 2018.

Meanwhile, when asked her views about Pakistan, where she does visit, Rehana says, “Pakistan is a beautiful place. In cities like Lahore and Islamabad, people can move with relative freedom. But that may not be the case in rural areas. However, a lot of my Pakistani women students express frustrations about the lack of freedom they have. If I go to Pakistan now, I don’t think I can travel alone. I will need the company of my brothers to go from place to place. The behaviour of the state can be authoritarian. If you have an encounter with the police, you can face a lot of difficulties.”

Rehana pauses and says, “That’s the case in many places in the world: freedom is being steadily taken away.” 

(Sunday Magazine, The New Indian Express, South India and Delhi)

Monday, January 21, 2019

Made In India Heroes

Authors R. Gopalakrishnan and Dr Ranjan Banerjee explore the reasons behind the success of Indians in top global companies 

Photos by Albin Mathew. R Gopalakrishnan (left) and Dr. Ranjan Banerjee; the cover of the book  

By Shevlin Sebastian

It was lunchtime at the Cathedral and John Connon School in Mumbai. And expectedly, in a cosmopolitan city, there was a boy from Gujarat, another from Kerala, a third student from Rajasthan and a fourth from Bengal. Without much ado, they put their tiffins on the table and shared the food. “I remember that each cuisine was so different,” says Dr Ranjan Banerjee, Dean and Professor, Marketing, at the SP Jain Institute of Management and Research at Mumbai. “We learnt to respect each other and the food.”

Because Ranjan was studying in a Christian school, during Assembly, he would say the Lord’s Prayer. But at night, without any sense of contradiction, he would attend the Durga Puja celebrations. “The ability to deal with differences is deeply ingrained among us Indians,” says Ranjan. “So, when you go to a work environment abroad where there are people from several countries it is a logical extension of your childhood and you are able to adapt easily and accept everybody.”

Ranjan, along with his co-author R. Gopalakrishnan, a former Director, Tata Sons and Vice Chairman, Hindustan Lever, got thinking about this, when they came across a Global Leader Survey by the executive research firm Egon Zehnder which concluded that Indians led more Standard & Poor 500 companies than people of any other nationality, except Americans. The list included people like Vikram Pandit at Citibank, Indra Nooyi at Pepsico and Sanjay Jha at Motorola. 

It pricked their curiosity. Was this an accident, they wondered. “To find out, we spoke to our batch mates who are in global positions, and said, ‘Did being brought up and educated in India make a difference to where you are today?’” says Gopalakrishnan.  
And almost across the board we got replies like there was an element of resilience that we learnt, we grew up dealing with the unpredictable, and there was a competitive intensity. Soon, we saw a set of themes emerging.”

So, the duo, who are close friends, did extensive research and conducted numerous interviews, before they began writing. The end result is a 196-page book called ‘The Made In India Manager’.

So what qualities does one gain by living in India? Ranjan provides an example. In many cities, after office hours, you will see people waiting at a bus stop,” he says. “When the bus arrives, somebody will throw a handkerchief in through the window to book a seat. That’s because the number of seats is significantly lower than the number of people who aspire for the seat.”

This competitive intensity is there from the start. “Anybody who is an executive in a multinational company or a top organisation has typically competed at some point of time with a ratio of 1:100, because of our huge population,” says Ranjan.

Apart from competition, there is a strong family culture in India and the values they espouse. Or, as Ranjan says: “Since we grow up in large families, we develop the quality of empathy. Also, there is somebody, either a father, uncle or grandfather, who plays a pivotal role in moulding a young person.” For Ranjan, it was his own parents who always encouraged him.  

Indians have other advantages, too, like a culture of management education. “In fact, management education in India started soon after independence,” says Gopalakrishnan. “The Indian Institutes of Management were set up in the 1960s. We are the world’s largest producers of MBAs. Korea and Japan cannot match us. So, our management preparation factories have also played a distinct role of Indians emerging as good managers.”

Plus, Indians are very strong in English, the global language for business. As the book states, ‘Most Indian business executives receive all of their business training in English, exclusively read English papers, watch English news channels and quote from the ‘Economist’ and the ‘Harvard Business Review’. This has created a class of professional managers who turn to English when they want to articulate a complex thought.’ And that is a big advantage when you work for a global company.

All in all, this is a cogently-argued and lucidly written book, which can be read, with profit, by youngsters, at the beginning of their careers, as well as seasoned professionals. 

(Sunday Magazine, The New Indian Express, South India and Delhi) 

Sunday, January 20, 2019

The charms and aches of the beautiful game

By Shevlin Sebastian

When The New Indian Express reporter IS Gopika posted a photo of a group of us office colleagues, on Facebook, just after we had played a hard-fought 60-minute six-a-side football match, on a Tuesday night, at Kochi, recently, my mind flashed to the past. To my student days at St. Xavier’s School, Kolkata.

And there I was, in Class four, running down the right flank, frail-looking, but fleet-footed, reaching the corner, stopping suddenly, half-turning towards the goalpost, and sending the ball floating across. What happened next I cannot recall. But I do remember the moment when I drifted to the middle, the ball coming to me, accidentally, and then I quickly swung my leg, and, bang, the ball entered the net. The first goal of my life! It seemed as if a bolt of lightning had struck me.

And today, years later, the charm of the game remains. The group I play with includes reporters, writers, designers, photographers, marketing and desk people. In other words, they are earning a living by expressing themselves. And that can be seen on the football field. A cohesion as well as a collision of strong personalities, and strong bodies, too, expressing themselves with vigour, confidence and the occasional foul.

In the past six months, ligaments have been torn, toenails chipped, backs have been hurt and muscle spasms have occurred. Sometimes, in the heat of battle, you don’t even know you are hurt. Once when I was having a shower, following a game, I felt a pain in my foot. When I looked closely, I saw two round stud marks. The blood had congealed but I was puzzled. When did this happen?

Twice I landed, as if in slow motion, on my back. Twice the ball hit my face but thankfully, no major damage was done. In another instance, when I battled for the ball, I felt a pain in my elbow. This lasted for a couple of days.

Still, there were sublime moments. During one such instance, an exchange of passes, between four players, and finally, I got the chance to deliver the coup de grace, with the goalkeeper out of position.

But not always. Gopika is the only woman in our group. She plays a goalkeeper and is improving game by game. In a recent match, she saved two certain goals. And she has an unflinching look even when a player is heading towards her with the ball.

So, this is what I have understood after playing several games: the body has been designed by Nature to be used to the maximum physically. So, the more you do so, the happier you feel. 

(Published as a middle, The New Indian Express, South Indian editions)

Thursday, January 17, 2019

At 89, athlete PS John wins gold medals at a state meet, with plans for more

By Shevlin Sebastian

PS John shifted nervously on his bed late at night. The next day, January 12, the 89-year-old was going to take part in the 100m race in the 85-89 age category at the the Masters Athletic Championship at the St. Thomas College, Thrissur. John was taking part in a race after a 14-month gap. On October 18, 2017, he had undergone a bypass operation. Two blocks had been removed and a valve replaced. After six months, John had started training. And now he felt he was ready.

But when John stepped on the track, he was taken aback by the heat. Secondly, the red soil looked hard. But, nevertheless, he took everything in his stride. There were three other participants, all younger than John.

The starter’s gun rang out. Very quickly John moved into the lead. Exactly 22.2 seconds later, he breasted the tape, becoming one of the oldest winners of a race in Kerala. He also took part in the long jump. And again, against slightly younger competitors, he jumped 7.2 feet. And won the gold again.

Not many people know that John has had an illustrious career. At the World Masters Athletic championships at Lyon, France, in 2015, he won the gold in the 80m hurdles, the 200m hurdles and a bronze in the long jump. Owing to his spectacular performance, John was adjudged the ‘Best Master Athlete 2015’ by the Asia Masters Athletics organisation.

John has been winning medals consistently over the decades at state, national and international competitions. His total haul is 141 medals (94 gold, 33 silver and 14 bronze). “It is hard work and dedication that has enabled me to win,” he says. “No matter how difficult life is, on the track I forget everything.”

In his daily life, John, who is a retired Malayalam teacher, is a farmer at Kanjirapally. He grows rubber, cocoa, bananas, jackfruit and organic vegetables. “I get milk straight from the cow,” says John. “There is a peaceful feeling when you work in Nature. Walking around enables me to keep fit.”

Asked about his future plans, John says, “This year, on October 11, I will turn 90 and then I am keen to take part in the 90 years plus category in the state and national meets. I would also like to participate in the world championships which will take place at Toronto in 2020.”

John pauses and says, “To take rest is to die.” 

(The New Indian Express, page 1, Kerala editions) 

Wednesday, January 16, 2019

When People Tried To End Their Lives

In Kochi and Melbourne, recent research by Dr. Fr Saju M D and Dr Lynette Joubert, on survivors of suicide have shown that the leading cause is a relationship breakdown

Photos: Illustration by Tapas Ranjan; Dr. Fr Saju M D and Dr Lynette Joubert

By Shevlin Sebastian    

When Asha Nair (name changed) told her mother that she was in love with a classmate, who belonged to a lower caste, her mother spoke harshly to her. “Forget about him,” her mother said. “We will never allow it.”

Asha felt a mixture of intense anger and hopelessness. It would seem as if the earth had opened up and she was sinking. She started taking quick intakes of breath. Asha could not think clearly. She ran to the kitchen, opened the kerosene can and poured the liquid on her body. Then she lit a matchstick and touched it against her clothes.

The result: 90 per cent of burns. At the hospital, Asha lingered between life and death. At that time, Dr Fr. Saju M D, Asst. Director and Administrator, Rajagiri College of Social Sciences, Kochi along with a few students were interviewing suicide survivors. They spoke to Asha. “She felt a regret about her rash action,” says Fr. Saju. “Asha wanted to show her anger towards her family, so she took this extreme step.” Tragically, luck was not in her favour. She died five days later.

Between 2016 and 2018, there were 12,490 suicides in Kerala. Fr. Saju says most of the victims were young and the major cause was a romantic relationship. “Either the parents did not accept the relationship or the affair broke down,” he says. “Young people lack an emotional resilience to overcome difficult moments.”

Most of these people are introverts and reluctant to share an intimate problem with their family members or even to their friends. “They don’t want to bring shame to the family by talking about it to others,” says Fr. Saju.  

So they resort to suicide. “It is usually a sudden decision,” says the priest. But interestingly, many women survive because they are unable to complete the act. On the other hand, males are more purposeful and kill themselves. In the group’s survey of 46 victims, in three hospitals in Kochi, 61.4 per cent of the suicide survivors were single women. They ranged in age from the late teens to age 25. And around 78 per cent had a history of depression and anxiety.

Incidentally, Fr. Saju was working closely with Dr Lynette Joubert, Professor of Social Work in the Department of Social Work at the University of Melbourne. She, along with Fr. Saju were resource persons at DYUTI 19 (Development Yearnings for an United and Transformed India) conducted by the School of Social Work, Rajagiri College of Social Sciences last week.

In fact, Saju got the idea of the survey when Lynette told him that she, along with a team had done a study of 120 suicide survivors in an emergency department of a hospital in Melbourne over a six-week period.  

The breakdown of relationships is the biggest cause for suicide,” says Lynette. The other reasons are poor physical health, drug abuse and financial stresses, like losing a job.”

All this can result in a deep depression. “We also noticed that most of them did not have any friends,” says Lynette. “This social isolation prompts a person to kill him or herself.”  

Asked the different ways people harm themselves, Lynette says, “In Australia, it is usually through tablet overdose. Some have shot themselves. Others have hanged or jumped off bridges. There are cases where people have cut the veins on their wrists. A few told me they felt a mental relief when they did it. But they did not intend to kill themselves.”

So, to avoid such a scenario, it is very important to have a social network, a group of close friends with whom you can confide in. “If you have such a network, you can find a way to solve your problems,” says Lynette.   
In Kerala, she says, you can get help too. “There are psychologists, counsellors and health clinics, just go and tell someone, ‘I need to talk this through’,” she says. “There's no shame in it. All of us can feel depressed at some point or the other.”

Interestingly, suicide is a worldwide problem. Last year, more than 8 lakh people killed themselves. But in Australia, astonishingly, the highest number of suicides is in the 80 plus group.

The victims live completely isolated lives,” says Lynette, “All of them do not stay in old age homes especially if they are healthy. There are many farmers who find it difficult to manage the finances especially if there is a drought. It forces many of them to take the extreme step. So we have to find a way to tackle this problem.” 

(The New Indian Express, Kochi, Thiruvananthapuram and Kozhikode)

Monday, January 14, 2019

Of Egg Yolk And Pigments

Mauritian artist Arvin Ombika specialises in egg tempera paintings. It was the rage in the Early Renaissance period (14th to 16th century) of Europe

Photos: Arvin Ombika; Sandro Botticelli’s ‘Birth of Venus’

By Shevlin Sebastian

Ten-year-old Manisha Nair (name changed) looked at the egg in Mauritian artist Arvin Ombika’s hand and said, “Yuck, how will I break it?”

Arvin smiled and said, “I will help you.”

So, he gently broke open the egg inside a container. Manisha could see the yolk floating about.

The yolk is inside a sac,” says Arvin. “Now, I will give you a needle. And you should prick it.”

Manisha nodded, even as she pursed her lips and said, “It’s so smelly.” Her mother whispered to Arvin, “She does not like eggs at all.” Nevertheless, Manisha did it, the yolk leaked out and Arvin quickly mixed it with paint pigments. Then he added distilled water, to get rid of any dust particles. The result is called egg tempera. All the women participants carefully followed what Arvin was doing at the workshop which was held at the Kerala History Museum, at Kochi, recently.  

Egg tempera paintings were seen in the first century when the Egyptians would draw portraits on the Mummy. “The rest of the tomb was decorated in encaustic paint, which is composed of beeswax, resin and pigment,” says Arvin. “But the popularity of egg tempera reached its peak during the early Renaissance period (14 to 16th century).”

Some of the most famous works were Italian artist Sandro Botticelli’s ‘Birth of Venus’, Giotto Di Bondone’s ‘Madonna in Maesta’ and 'The Doni Tondo' by Michelangelo.   

Arvin himself works in egg tempera. At Kochi, he had brought along two works, 30 by 20 cms. It is of two men looking at each other. One is Arvin’s self-portrait, thick black beard, curly shoulder-length hair and hairy chest, while the other is a sideways view of his bespectacled friend Santanu Dutta, a Rabindra Sangeet musician from Kolkata, with both sporting golden halos.

They had met when Arvin was studying at Viswa Bharati University in Santiniketan, while Santanu worked as an associate professor at the nearby Labpur College. “We are in a quest to know our identity,” says Arvin. “That’s what I wanted to convey through the work.”  

Asked the advantages of using egg tempera, Arvin says, “If it is used properly, there is a shine on the painting, a sort of satin finish. Which means that you do not need to use varnish.” Earlier, insects and cockroaches would attack the paintings. But now when cloves are put in the yolk, the smell lessens and the insects stay away.  

The drawback of egg tempera is that since the yolk dries quickly, you have to work very fast. Also, for large paintings, you need a lot of eggs. “So, it was not practically feasible,” says Arvin. But when oil was discovered in the 15th century, many artists opted for it. “It does not dry quickly, so you can take your time over the work you are doing,” he says.   

Arvin is a fifth-generation Indian in Mauritius. In the 18th century, one of his forefathers went as an indentured labourer from Arrah, Bihar. “Today, out of a population of 12 lakh, 70 per cent are of Indian origin,” he says. The rest comprise the French (Mauritius was a colonial outpost from 1715-1810), some Britishers, again because of colonialism (1810-1968), a few Chinese, who came as labourers, and Africans, who also came from Madagascar and Mozambique as slaves.

When he was in Class seven Arvin had to take compulsory art classes at the Adolphe De Plevitz State Secondary School, and fell in love with the subject. Later, he did his Bachelor of Fine Arts at the Mahatma Gandhi Institute (MGI), which is affiliated to the University of Mauritius. It was there that he came across the egg tempera process. Thereafter, he secured an Indian Council for Cultural Relations scholarship to do his Masters at Viswa Bharati University, Santiniketan, from 2015-2017.

Today, Arvin is a full-time artist. He has put up his works -- egg tempera, oil and acrylic  -- at exhibitions in Mauritius, Italy and Canada. But he does admit that being an artist in Mauritius is not easy. “For most artists, they need to have a job so that they can finance their art,” says Arvin. “But that is the case in many parts of the world.”

Arvin’s future plans include a doctorate in painting, hopefully, at a foreign university. “I am applying for scholarships, but I have no doubt that art is going to be my life,” says the 33-year-old. 

(Sunday Magazine, The New Indian Express, South Indian editions and Delhi)

Wednesday, January 09, 2019

Some Life-Long Lessons

Navy Commander Abhilash Tomy recalls his experiences following a near-fatal accident while participating in the Golden Global Race last year

Photos: Abhilash Tomy; with his wife, Urmimala, who is of Bengali origin

By Shevlin Sebastian

I am walking, standing and sitting on my own,” says Abhilash Tomy, by phone from Mumbai. “But I cannot run as yet. And I cannot go on a boat now.” The celebrated sailor had a near-fatal accident on September 21, last year, while taking part, as one of 17 sailors in the Golden Global Race. Owing to a severe storm in the South Indian Ocean, his boat, ‘Thuriya’ was dismasted, and he suffered a severe back injury. For 71 hours, he lay on his back, unable to move, before he was rescued. Today, Abhilash is making slow but steadfast progress.

The commander of the Indian Navy, who is the first Indian to circumnavigate the globe solo and non-stop in a sailboat in 2013, spent several weeks in Goa doing physiotherapy, following a surgery on his back in Delhi. “I have several fractures and I lost close to 20 kgs,” says Abhilash.

Asked the reasons for this drastic loss of weight, Abhilash says, “I did not eat anything for seven days. Usually, after an accident, the body tends to lose weight. When I was taken to the Amsterdam Isle [in the Indian Ocean], my food pipe was very raw. I found it difficult to swallow. It could have been because of acidity. Even drinking water was a problem. So I was put on a glucose drip.”  

The entire experience was an eye-opener. “I realised that now that I am married, I am responsible for other people,” he says. “I need to be more careful before I undertake such adventures. I could have returned paralysed forcing my wife Urmimala to look after me for the rest of her life. I also have an eight-year-old son Vedaant. I am the only earning member. The last time I went around the world I was a bachelor.”

The accident provided some revelations for Abhilash. “When you face a crisis, the human mind is so conditioned that it always takes your present circumstances and projects it into the future,” he says. “When everybody feels they are down in the dumps, the mind makes them believe their life is going to be like this forever. The opposite also happens. If somebody gives you Rs 50 lakh your mind will start thinking that every day somebody will give you a similar amount.”

It is important to understand the conditioning of the brain. “You cannot change it,” says Abhilash. “The brain is an organ which helps you survive physically in this world. The mind also makes its judgement, so that you can survive. But there is a third entity which is the divine force. It is through this power that you can break the shackles. If you identify yourself too closely with the mind or the brain then you will not be able to change.”

Meanwhile, as Abhilash recuperates, he follows the race that he was part of. Thus far, only five sailors are still participating. The majority had their boats damaged. So they retired. At this moment, the leader is Frenchman Jean-Luc Van Den Heede. In second place is Mark Slats of Holland, who is 1500 km behind. The race is expected to finish in end January.

When asked to describe the character of water, Abhilash says, “Water is like a human being. At the surface, it has various moods: angry, defiant, ruffled and peaceful. But in the depths of the ocean, it is always the same: calm, quiet and tranquil. At our core, where the divine rests, it is also like this.”

Finally, when asked about the plastic menace in the oceans, Abhilash says that he saw tonnes of plastic and it was much more than five years ago. In a particular section of the South Atlantic Ocean, in his earlier trip, Abhilash did not see anything even when he crossed it three times. But this time he could see huge pieces. Since all the oceans are linked, he did not know where it is coming from. “But it is worrying,” he says. “My advice to people: stop throwing plastic into the rivers and ponds. It usually ends up in the ocean.” 

(The New Indian Express, Kochi, Thiruvananthapuram and Kozhikode)

Tuesday, January 08, 2019

Telling Stories From Nature

The Gond art installation by Subhash Singh Vyam and his wife Durga Bai focuses on a folklore. It is one of the highlights of the ongoing Kochi Muziris Biennale

Photos: Subhash Singh Vyam and his wife Durga Bai.Pic by Albin Mathew.  Artist J. Swaminathan (extreme right) with Jangarh Singh Shyam and Jangarh's wife Nansukia Bai during their younger days 

By Shevlin Sebastian 

As one stepped into a ground floor hall at Aspinwall House, Fort Kochi, one cannot but stop and gaze with the mouth open. Because all the four walls and the two pillars were covered with figures. It included men and women, plants, trees, flora, a well, a pond, snakes, birds, cows and goats. These are etchings, which bulge out from the marine plywood base. And quite simply, top-class Gond art. 

The veteran artists Subhash Singh Vyam and his wife Durga Bai are telling a story, across the walls. It is called ‘Dus Motin Kanya and Jai Devata’  -- a story of five brothers and their sister. 

A smiling Subhash starts narrating the tale. “In a village, there was a family. One day, the parents, when they were about to die, told their five sons and daughters-in-law that they should look after their daughter and not send her out for work because she is very delicate and a precious gem of the family,” he says. 

Following the death of the parents, after a few months, the sons had to leave the village for the city to do work. So they told their wives to look after their sister properly. 

For a few weeks, the wives looked after Dus Motin. But after a while, they began torturing her. One day they pushed her into a well. There were a few frogs, fishes and crabs that prevented Dus Motin from slipping under the surface of the water. A bird saw the girl and saved her. It took her to a tree where it had small chicks inside a nest. 

The mother bird flew out to get fish and seeds for the small ones,” says Subhash. “For the girl, it was trying to get some fruits.” 

Some days later, the brothers, on their way home, took shelter under the same tree where their sister was staying. When the baby birds cried, the girl sang a soothing song which stated their mother would soon be back with food. 

As she sang, she began to miss her brothers,” says Durga Bai. “And a tear rolled down her face and fell on the heart of the eldest brother lying below. He looked around and wondered about the origin of the waterdrop came since the weather was not cloudy and there was no chance of any rain.” 

Another brother said, “Just taste it. If it is salty, it must be a tear.” So, the eldest brother did so, and it turned out to be salty. 

Then the brothers looked up and spotted their sister. “They thought the bird had kidnapped the sister,” says Subhash. “So they wanted to kill the bird. But then Dus Motin said that it was the bird who had actually saved her. Then the brothers understood what had happened and apologised to the bird.” 

And the tale continued. And for every event which the couple described, it was represented on the wall. They had done the acrylic paintings on marine plywood, cut it out and pasted the various items on the walls. 

We worked for three months in Bhopal,” says Subhash. “And the drawings were done in three and four-feet sizes. There were more than one hundred pieces, which was transported by lorry to Kochi.”

The artistic couple belongs to the Dindori district in Madhya Pradesh, which is 350 km from the capital, Bhopal. “We have been painting for the past thirty years,” says Subhash. “It is a full-time profession. We earn by selling our works in India and abroad. We also do illustrations for books and take part in art fairs.” 

In fact, one of their works is on display at Mumbai Airport. “Many people see that and get in touch to buy our works,” says Durga Bai. 

So who are the Gonds? They are Adivasis, of Dravidian origin, who are mainly found in Madhya Pradesh, as well as Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh and Odisha. The word Gond comes from Kond, which means green mountains. They speak a language similar to Telugu, but some Gonds also speak Hindi. 

The Gonds have a belief that if they see a good image, it will bring them luck. That’s why they decorate the walls of their houses with traditional tattoos and motifs. They believe that all natural things, whether it be a rock, tree, pond, or mountain has a spirit within them, and hence, they are sacred. So the Gonds paint the images with a respectful attitude. 

About thirty years ago, the Gonds, led by the artistic Pardhan Gonds, began to use modern techniques like acrylic paintings, ink drawings and silkscreen prints. “Our guru is [the late] Jangarh Singh Shyam, who was the first to use paper and canvas,” says Subhash, who was his brother-in-law (see box). 

Meanwhile, Subhash and Durga Bai have set up a school in their village to teach art to the next generation. “We want our artistic tradition to carry on,” says Subhash.

The first to make a mark

The noted artist J. Swaminathan, the then director of Bhopal’s Bharat Bhavan,  discovered the 17-year-old Jangarh Singh Shyam in 1981 when he was painting on huts in Patangarh, Madhya Pradesh. Thereafter, Jangarh followed Swaminathan to Bhopal where he started working in the graphics art department of Bharat Bhavan. Jangarh became the first Gond artist to work on canvas and had his work displayed, to acclaim, in France and Japan. Thanks to Jangarh, Gond art made its mark internationally. 

Jangarh was later commissioned to paint the interiors of the Legislative Assembly of Madhya Pradesh, the Vidhan Bhavan, and the dome of the Bharat Bhavan. 

Sadly, Jangarh committed suicide at the Mithila Museum in Niigata, Japan, on July 3, 2001, at the age of 39. He had gone there to do contractual work. There has been no proper explanation as to why he took the extreme step. Some said he was depressed. Others said he was being exploited by the museum authorities to produce work at a faster pace. 

In 2010, Jangarh’s ‘Landscape with Spider’, which he painted in 1988, was sold at a Sotheby auction in New York for Rs 14.5 lakh, the highest for any Gond artist. 

Today, his wife, Nankusia Bai and children Mayank and Japani have followed in Jangarh’s footsteps and have become acclaimed Gond artists. 

(The New Indian Express, Kochi, Thiruvananthapuram and Kozhikode)

Saturday, January 05, 2019

Is a strike a good thing? Visitors to Kochi weigh in

By Shevlin Sebastian

(From left): Mia Gysin, Angela Gollard, Krissy Schuh and Barbara Jodie

At Aspinwall House, Fort Kochi, director Amitav Kaul, who is adapting Pulitzer Prize winner Jhumpa Lahiri’s short story collection, ‘Interpreter of Maladies’ to the big screen, pauses and stares at a photograph at the Kochi Muziris Biennale.

When a visitor tells him that last year Kerala had 97 hartals, Amitav shakes his head and says, “That’s not much. In Srinagar, where I live, we have a strike every week. Unfortunately, when a bandh happens in Kashmir, somebody dies. In Kerala, things are milder. But everywhere in India, bandhs happen because somebody wants something. And they are not getting it. So, they have to do a protest to get it.”

Amitav, who is shooting in Kolkata at present, adds, “There are so many bandhs in Bengal, too. The problem is that most of the time, a hartal is called for political reasons and hence it may not be such a good thing. The freedom to protest is being abused.”  

The Mumbai-born New York resident Javed Syed says, “I am not against the idea of a general strike. I just saw an incredible film at the Biennale on the mill workers in Mumbai by artist Sudhir Patwardhan. Many workers get exploited, even though the world survives on their work. If they don’t protest, then they will continue to be treated badly.”  

However, when told about the numerous strikes last year in Kerala, Javed says, “It clearly shows the ruling class is not listening to the people.”

Javed clarified that in America, there is rarely a general strike. “Workers in particular categories like cab or train drivers may go on strike,” he says. “But life is never brought to a standstill.”

And that is the case in Europe, too. Krissy Schuh of Germany says, “The people working in the railways may go on a strike for better salaries. So the trains will stop running.”

The modus operandi is simple: a political party will mobilise people. They will hold placards and walk from one end of the city to the other, shouting slogans. Then at a designated spot, there will be speeches. “But all this is mostly over within half a day,” says Krissy.

As for the situation in Switzerland, Mia Gysin says, “The last general strike took place decades ago. Nowadays, it is always in particular categories.” Adds her friend, Barbara Jodie, “In Switzerland, the government or the people will suggest a law. Then the people can vote on it, Later, there is the possibility of a referendum. So, the need to strike is less.”

Finally, Angela Gollard, who is Swiss, but has a French boyfriend says, with a smile, “However, there is nobody to match the French. They are always going on strike although it is restricted to particular regions.”  

(The New Indian Express, Kerala editions)

Wednesday, January 02, 2019

The Unknown Slave Trade From Kochi

South African artist Sue Williamson’s installations at the Kochi Muziris Biennale focus on the slave trade from Kochi and other parts of India to Cape Town, as well as the slave trade from Africa to the United States

Photos: Sue Williamson. Pic by Albin Mathew; the linen banians

By Shevlin Sebastian

At the side of Aspinwall House, Fort Kochi, the linen banians, pinned on a clothesline, are flying in the breeze. It would seem like an everyday garment in India but a closer look reveals something different. On the front, the following words are inscribed in red and black ink: Name: Jacob. Place of birth: Malabar. Age: 12. Seller: Antony. Buyer: Aram. Price: Rds 20. Sold at: Cape Town, 16.5.1687. (Rds is Rijksdollars: the Dutch currency of that period).
This is an installation by South African artist Sue Williamson, called ‘One Hundred and Nineteen Deeds of Sale’. This number represents every day of the duration of the Kochi Muziris Biennale, from December 12, 2018, to March 29, 2019.

Sue was trying to highlight the slave trade which took place between Kochi and Cape Town. The ships of the Dutch East India Company would pick up coffee, china, spices, and chintz from South and South-East Asia and take it back to the Netherlands. On the way, they would stop at Cape Town and stay at the company-owned fort, the Castle of Good Hope. “But because there was a shortage of labour, to work in the vegetable gardens, they would buy slaves from Kochi and other parts of India and take them to Cape Town,” says Sue.

The trade began in 1658. “The slaves were mostly men in their prime,” says Sue. “But women and children were also taken along.” In fact, South African historian Nigel Worden, in a research paper titled ‘Indian Ocean Slaves in Cape Town, 1695–1807’, wrote, “In 1731, one of the few years for which we have a complete demographic profile of Cape Town, the slaves formed 42.2 percent of the population. Out of this, around 26 percent came from India.”

Nigel details one clear example. A 10-year-old girl named China was sold by her mother because of poverty to a Dutch East India Company employee at the trading post at Nagapattinam (Tamil Nadu). She ended up as ‘Rosa’ working at the Groot Constantia wine estate outside Cape Town.

This migration was a lesser-known event in world history, because it was not on a very large scale,” says Sue. “Maybe, a few thousands over 150 years. The British outlawed it in 1834.”
Incidentally, Sue got the information by studying the records at the Cape Town Deeds Office. “It has been very well preserved,” she says. “In fact, South Africa has the best slave records in the world. I also read a book on the slave trade by historian Anna Boeseken as well as Nigel’s study.”

Sue’s other installation, ‘Messages from the Atlantic Passage. at Aspinwall House drew gasps of breath. In a hall, with a very high ceiling, five fishing nets, filled with muddy glass bottles, are hanging and water is flowing through them and falling into rectangular sections on the floor that resemble the Atlantic ocean. In fact, each of the 2000 bottles is inscribed with the name of a slave.

Sue wanted to highlight the 12 ½ million West Africans who were sent by ship to America over 300 years to work, as slaves, in the cotton plantations in America as well as the sugarcane fields in the Caribbean.

I wanted to say that it was inhumane,” she says. “Like a fisherman casting his net, only, in this case, they were catching people, and not fishes. The bottles are a metaphor for the people. It was a time when people were treated like cheap commodities. And these people were jammed in the hold of the ships. If you see sketches, you will see people lying side by side, like tiny little fishes.”

Sue has spent her artistic career in recovering histories. “I am interested in the effects of colonialism on people,” says the 77-year-old. But she displays her work through videos and installations and has participated in the Havana, Sydney, Istanbul, Dakar, Johannesburg and Venice Biennales. But the Kochi Biennale has a charm of its own. “It may be for the first time that women artists are dominant,” she says. “I love the vibrancy and the energy of the Biennale. The people are very friendly and proud of their city.”

South Africa today: the need to remember and reconcile

South African artist Sue Williamson says, “There is a feeling among young black South Africans that when they try to bring up the subject of apartheid, the whites say, ‘It is over now. Get over it. We don’t want to talk about it any more’. There has never been a proper apology by the whites. So, there is resentment. The whites have to recognise that there was a system of apartheid even though they may not have directly participated in the repression. But they went to white schools, belonged to white clubs and stayed in white neighbourhoods. They had lived in a bubble.”

The situation in South Africa at present is not transforming enough. “Education is still not equal,” says Sue. “If you don’t have enough money you cannot send your children to the best schools. Unfortunately, the public schools are not that great.
Young people are graduating with insufficient education and hence they cannot compete in the economy and remain unemployed. This has caused resentment and bitterness and has led to a lot of violence.” 

(Published in The New Indian Express, Kochi, Thiruvananthapuram and Kozhikode)